Acton, Harold and Cheney, Edward. Florence: A Travellers’ Companion (London: Constable, 1986).

Addis, Ferdinand. The Eternal City: A History of Rome (New York: Pegasus Books, 2018).

di Bisticci, Vespasiano. The Vespasiano Memoirs, trans. William George and Emily Waters (London: Routledge & Sons, 1927).

Black, Christopher. Early Modern Italy: A Social History (New York: Routledge, 2001).

Black, Jane. Absolutism in Renaissance Milan: Plenitude of Power under the Visconti and the Sforza, 1329-1535 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

Borsook, Eve. The Companion Guide to Florence (Collins, 1966).

Brion, Marcel. The Medici: A Great Florentine Family, trans. Gilles and Heather Cremonesi (New York: Crown Publishing Company, 1981).

Brown, Alison. The Medici in Florence: The Exercise and Language of Power (Perth: Leo S. Olschki and University of Western Australia Press, 1992).

Brucker, Gene A. Florence: The Golden Age, 1138-1737 (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984).

_____________. Florentine Politics and Society 1343-1378 (Princeton, NJ: University of Princeton Press, 1962).

_____________. Renaissance Florence (London: Wiley, 1969).

_____________. “The Medici in the Fourteenth Century” Speculum, 32 (1957): 1-26.

Bruni, Leonardo. History of the Florentine People, trans. James Hankins (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001), Vols. 1-3.

Burkhardt, Jacob. The Civilization of The Renaissance in Italy, trans. S.G.C. Middlemore (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1878).

di Camugliano, G. Niccolini. The Chronicles of a Florentine Family, 1200-1400 (Florence: Jonathan Cape, 1933).

Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (Rome: Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana),

Cleugh, James. The Medici: A Tale of Fifteen Generations (New York: Dorset Press, 1975).

Collins, Roger. Keepers of the Keys of Heaven: A History of the Papacy (New York: Basic Books, 2009).

Compagni, Dio. Chronicle of Florence, ed. Daniel E. Bornstein. (Philadelphia; University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986).

Dei, Benedetto. La Cronica (Florence: Francesco Papafava, 1984).

The Society of Renaissance Florence, a Documentary Study, ed. Gene Brucker. (New York: Harper & Row, 1971

Epstein, Steven, Genoa and the Genoese (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998).

Fatturoso, G. Florence: The Churches, The Palaces, The Treasures of Art (Florence: L’Impontra Press, 1945).

______________. The Society of Renaissance Florence (New York: Harper & Row, 1971).

Florentine Political Writings from Petrarch to Machiavelli, eds. Mark Jurdjevic, Natasha Piano, and John P. McCormick (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019).

Florentine Studies: Politics and Society in Renaissance Florence, ed. Nicolai Rubenstein (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1968).

Galluzzi, Riguccio. Istoria del Granducato di Toscano sotto il governo della Casa Medici, 8 vols. (Florence: Gaetano Cambiagi, 1781).

Gilmour, David. The Pursuit of Italy: A History of a Land, Its Regions, and Their Peoples (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2012).

Goldwaithe, Richard A. The Building of Renaissance Florence: A Social and Economic History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1982).

__________________. The Economy of Renaissance Florence (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2009).

__________________. “The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture”, American Historical Review (1972): 977-1012.

__________________. Private Wealth in Renaissance Florence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968).

Guicciardini, Francesco. The History of Italy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).

Hale, J.R. Florence and the Medici (New York: Phoenix Press, 2001 [1977]).

Hankins, James. Virtue Politics: Soulcraft and Statecraft in Renaissance Italy (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2019).

Heer, Friedrich. The Holy Roman Empire, trans. Janus Sondheimer (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968).

Hibbert, Christopher W. Florence: The Biography of a City (London: Penguin, 2004).

___________________. The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall (New York: Morrow Quill, 1980 [1974]).

___________________. Rome: The Biography of a City (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1985).

Hollingsworth, Mary. The Family Medici: The Hidden History of the Medici Dynasty (New York: Pegasus Books, 2018).

Landucci, Luca. A Florentine Diary from 1450-1516, trans. Alice de Rosen (Jervis, 1927).

Lapini, Agostino. Diario Florentino (Florence: G.C. Sansoni, 1900).

Luzatto, Gino. An Economic History of Italy From the Fall of the Empire to the Beginning of the 16th Century, trans. Philip Jones (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961).

Machiavelli, Niccolò. Florentine Histories, trans. Laura F. Banfield and Harvey C. Mansfield (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).

Madden, Thomas. Venice: A New History (New York: Penguin Books, 2013).

Magnificenza alla Corte dei Medici (Milan: Electa, 1997).  

Massinelli, Anna Maria and Tuena, Filippo M. Treasures of the Medici (New York: Vendome Press, 2008).

Moffat, Alistair. Tuscany: A History (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2011).

Muir, Dorothy. A History of Milan Under The Visconti (London: Methuen & Co., 1924).

Najemy, John M. A History of Florence, 1200-1575 (New York: Wiley Blackwell, 2008).

Noble, Mark. Memoirs of the Illustrious House of Medici (1797).

Parenti, Marco. The Memoir of Marco Parenti: A Life in Medici Florence, trans. and ed. Mark Phillips (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987).

Possessions of a Cardinal: Politics, Piety, and Art 1540-1700, eds. Mary Hollingsworth and Carol M. Richardson (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2010).

Norwich, John Julius. Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy (New York: Random House, 2011).

_________________. A History of Venice (New York: Random House, 1989 [1982]).

Rubenstein, Nicolai. The Government of Florence Under the Medici (Oxford, 1966).

Strathem, Paul. The Medici: Power, Money, and Ambition in the Italian Renaissance (New York: Pegasus Books, 2016).

Tomas, Natalie R. The Medici Women: Gender and Power in Renaissance Florence (Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate, 2003).

Trexler, Richard C. Public Life in Renaissance Florence (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980).

Two Memoirs of Renaissance Florence, ed. Gene Brucker (Harper & Row, 1967).

Villani, Giovanni. Cronica (Florence: Magheri, 1823).

Villani, Matteo. Cronica (Florence: Magheri, 1823).

Young, G.F. The Medici (New York: Charles Boni, 1930).

Italy from the Fall of the Western Empire to Matilda of Tuscany

Becker, Marvin B. Medieval Italy (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1981).

Browning, Simon. Guelphs and Ghibellines: A Short History of Medieval Italy (London: Methuen & Co., 1893).

Duff, Nora. Matilda of Tuscany: La Gran Donna d’Italia (London: Methuen & Co., 1909).

Gerrard, James. The Ruin of Roman Britain: An Archaeological Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

Italy In The Early Middle Ages: 476-1000, ed. Cristina La Rocca (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Liutprand of Cremona. Works, trans. and ed. F.A. Wright (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1930).

Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative Documents, eds. and trans. Robert S. Lopez and Irving W. Raymond (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001).

Spike, Michèle K. Tuscan Countess: The Life and Extraordinary Times of Matilda of Canossa (New York: Vendome Press, 2004).

Wickham, Chris. Early Medieval Italy (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989).

Black Death

Benedictow, Ole J. The Black Death, 1346-1353: The Complete History (Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press, 2004).

Carmichael, Ann G. Plague and the Poor in Florence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

Cohn, Samuel K. The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe. (London: Arnold and Oxford University Press, 2002).

_____________. The Cult of Remembrance and the Black Death: Six Renaissance Cities in Central Italy (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1997).

Henderson, John. “The Black Death in Florence” in Death in Towns, ed. S. Bennett (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1992).

Herlihy, David. The Black Death and the Transformation of the West (Cambrdige: Harvard University Press, 1997).

Kelly, John. The Great Mortality (New York: HarperCollins, 2005).

The Avignon Papacy/The Great Schism

Mullins, Edwin. The Popes of Avignon: A Century in Exile (New York: Blueridge, 2008).

Smith, John Holland. The Great Schism 1378: The Disintegration of the Papacy (New York: Weybright And Talley, 1970).

Weiss, Stefan. “Luxury and Extravagance at the Papal Court in Avignon and the Outbreak of the Great Western Schism”, trans. Catherine Masemann in A Companion to the Great Schism, eds. Joelle Rollo-Koster and Thomas M. Izbicki (Leiden: Brill, 2009).

The Ciompi Revolt

Brucker, Gene A. “The Ciompi Revolution” in Florentine Studies: Politics and Society in Renaissance Florence, ed. Nicolai Rubenstein (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1968).

Kitchel, Alex. “The Ciompi Revolt of 1378: Socio-Political Constraints and the Economic Demands of Workers in Renaissance Florence” Hanover Historical Review 13 (2018): 1-23.

Texler, R.C. “Follow the Flag: The Ciompi Revolt Seen From The Streets” Bibliotheque d’Humanisme et Renaissance 46 (1984): 357-392.

The Early Medici

Becker, Marvin B. “The Republican City State in Florence: An Inquiry into Its Origins and Survival” Speculum (1960): 39-50.

______________.  Florentine Politics and Society: 1343-1378 (Princeton University Press, 2016).

Bertelli, Sergio. “Constitutional Reforms in Renaissance Florence”, Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies (1973): 139-164.

Dami, B. Giovanni Bicci de’ Medici (Florence, 1899).

Field, Arthur. The Intellectual Struggle for Florence: Humanists and the Beginnings of the Medici Regime, 1420-1440 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).

Gombrich, E.H. “The Early Medici as Patrons of Art” in Italian Renaissance Studies, ed. E.F. Jacob (London, 1960).

Jurdjevic, M. “Civic Humanism and the Rise of the Medici” Renaissance Quarterly, 52.4 (1999): 994-1020.

Kent, Dale The Rise of the Medici (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).

Litchfield, I.R. Burr “Office-holding in Florence After the Republic” in Renaissance: Studies in Honor of Hans Baron, ed. Anthony Molho and John A. Tedeschi (Dekalb, Illinois, 1971).

Molho, Anthony. “The Florentine oligarchy and the balie of the late trecento” Speculum (1968).

____________. “Politics and the ruling class in Early Renaissance Florence”, Nuovaa Rivista Storica (1968): 401-420.

Pampaloni, G. “Fermenti di riforme democratiche nella Firenze medicea del quattrocentro” in Archivio Storico Italiano (1961): 11-61 and 241-281.

Rubenstein, Nicolai. The Government of Florence Under the Medici (Oxford, 1966).

_______________. “Florentine Constitutionalism and Medici Ascendancy in the Fifteenth Century”, Florentine Studies.

The bibliographies are not set in stone and will keep growing as our story goes on.