Acton, Harold and Cheney, Edward. Florence: A Travellers’ Companion (London: Constable, 1986).

Addis, Ferdinand. The Eternal City: A History of Rome (New York: Pegasus Books, 2018).

di Bisticci, Vespasiano. The Vespasiano Memoirs, trans. William George and Emily Waters (London: Routledge & Sons, 1927).

Black, Christopher. Early Modern Italy: A Social History (New York: Routledge, 2001).

Black, Jane. Absolutism in Renaissance Milan: Plenitude of Power under the Visconti and the Sforza, 1329-1535 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

Borsook, Eve. The Companion Guide to Florence (Collins, 1966).

Brion, Marcel. The Medici: A Great Florentine Family, trans. Gilles and Heather Cremonesi (New York: Crown Publishing Company, 1981).

Brown, Alison. The Medici in Florence: The Exercise and Language of Power (Perth: Leo S. Olschki and University of Western Australia Press, 1992).

Brucker, Gene A. Florence: The Golden Age, 1138-1737 (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984).

_____________. Florentine Politics and Society 1343-1378 (Princeton, NJ: University of Princeton Press, 1962).

_____________. Renaissance Florence (London: Wiley, 1969).

_____________. “The Medici in the Fourteenth Century” Speculum, 32 (1957): 1-26.

Bruni, Leonardo. History of the Florentine People, trans. James Hankins (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001), Vols. 1-3.

Burkhardt, Jacob. The Civilization of The Renaissance in Italy, trans. S.G.C. Middlemore (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1878).

di Camugliano, G. Niccolini. The Chronicles of a Florentine Family, 1200-1400 (Florence: Jonathan Cape, 1933).

Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (Rome: Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana),

Cleugh, James. The Medici: A Tale of Fifteen Generations (New York: Dorset Press, 1975).

Collins, Roger. Keepers of the Keys of Heaven: A History of the Papacy (New York: Basic Books, 2009).

Compagni, Dio. Chronicle of Florence, ed. Daniel E. Bornstein. (Philadelphia; University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986).

Dei, Benedetto. La Cronica (Florence: Francesco Papafava, 1984).

The Society of Renaissance Florence, a Documentary Study, ed. Gene Brucker. (New York: Harper & Row, 1971

Epstein, Steven, Genoa and the Genoese (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998).

Fatturoso, G. Florence: The Churches, The Palaces, The Treasures of Art (Florence: L’Impontra Press, 1945).

______________. The Society of Renaissance Florence (New York: Harper & Row, 1971).

Florentine Political Writings from Petrarch to Machiavelli, eds. Mark Jurdjevic, Natasha Piano, and John P. McCormick (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019).

Florentine Studies: Politics and Society in Renaissance Florence, ed. Nicolai Rubenstein (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1968).

Galluzzi, Riguccio. Istoria del Granducato di Toscano sotto il governo della Casa Medici, 8 vols. (Florence: Gaetano Cambiagi, 1781).

Gilmour, David. The Pursuit of Italy: A History of a Land, Its Regions, and Their Peoples (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2012).

Goldwaithe, Richard A. The Building of Renaissance Florence: A Social and Economic History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1982).

__________________. The Economy of Renaissance Florence (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2009).

__________________. “The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture”, American Historical Review (1972): 977-1012.

__________________. Private Wealth in Renaissance Florence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968).

Guicciardini, Francesco. The History of Italy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).

Hale, J.R. Florence and the Medici (New York: Phoenix Press, 2001 [1977]).

Hankins, James. Virtue Politics: Soulcraft and Statecraft in Renaissance Italy (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2019).

Heer, Friedrich. The Holy Roman Empire, trans. Janus Sondheimer (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968).

Hibbert, Christopher W. Florence: The Biography of a City (London: Penguin, 2004).

___________________. The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall (New York: Morrow Quill, 1980 [1974]).

___________________. Rome: The Biography of a City (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1985).

Hollingsworth, Mary. The Family Medici: The Hidden History of the Medici Dynasty (New York: Pegasus Books, 2018).

Landucci, Luca. A Florentine Diary from 1450-1516, trans. Alice de Rosen (Jervis, 1927).

Lapini, Agostino. Diario Florentino (Florence: G.C. Sansoni, 1900).

Luzatto, Gino. An Economic History of Italy From the Fall of the Empire to the Beginning of the 16th Century, trans. Philip Jones (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961).

Machiavelli, Niccolò. Florentine Histories, trans. Laura F. Banfield and Harvey C. Mansfield (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).

Madden, Thomas. Venice: A New History (New York: Penguin Books, 2013).

Magnificenza alla Corte dei Medici (Milan: Electa, 1997).  

Massinelli, Anna Maria and Tuena, Filippo M. Treasures of the Medici (New York: Vendome Press, 2008).

Moffat, Alistair. Tuscany: A History (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2011).

Muir, Dorothy. A History of Milan Under The Visconti (London: Methuen & Co., 1924).

Najemy, John M. A History of Florence, 1200-1575 (New York: Wiley Blackwell, 2008).

Noble, Mark. Memoirs of the Illustrious House of Medici (1797).

Parenti, Marco. The Memoir of Marco Parenti: A Life in Medici Florence, trans. and ed. Mark Phillips (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987).

Possessions of a Cardinal: Politics, Piety, and Art 1540-1700, eds. Mary Hollingsworth and Carol M. Richardson (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2010).

Norwich, John Julius. Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy (New York: Random House, 2011).

_________________. A History of Venice (New York: Random House, 1989 [1982]).

Rubenstein, Nicolai. The Government of Florence Under the Medici (Oxford, 1966).

Strathem, Paul. The Medici: Power, Money, and Ambition in the Italian Renaissance (New York: Pegasus Books, 2016).

Tomas, Natalie R. The Medici Women: Gender and Power in Renaissance Florence (Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate, 2003).

Trexler, Richard C. Public Life in Renaissance Florence (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980).

Two Memoirs of Renaissance Florence, ed. Gene Brucker (Harper & Row, 1967).

Villani, Giovanni. Cronica (Florence: Magheri, 1823).

Villani, Matteo. Cronica (Florence: Magheri, 1823).

Young, G.F. The Medici (New York: Charles Boni, 1930).

Italy from the Fall of the Western Empire to Matilda of Tuscany

Becker, Marvin B. Medieval Italy (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1981).

Browning, Simon. Guelphs and Ghibellines: A Short History of Medieval Italy (London: Methuen & Co., 1893).

Duff, Nora. Matilda of Tuscany: La Gran Donna d’Italia (London: Methuen & Co., 1909).

Gerrard, James. The Ruin of Roman Britain: An Archaeological Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

Italy In The Early Middle Ages: 476-1000, ed. Cristina La Rocca (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Liutprand of Cremona. Works, trans. and ed. F.A. Wright (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1930).

Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative Documents, eds. and trans. Robert S. Lopez and Irving W. Raymond (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001).

Spike, Michèle K. Tuscan Countess: The Life and Extraordinary Times of Matilda of Canossa (New York: Vendome Press, 2004).

Wickham, Chris. Early Medieval Italy (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989).

Black Death

Benedictow, Ole J. The Black Death, 1346-1353: The Complete History (Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press, 2004).

Carmichael, Ann G. Plague and the Poor in Florence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

Cohn, Samuel K. The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe. (London: Arnold and Oxford University Press, 2002).

_____________. The Cult of Remembrance and the Black Death: Six Renaissance Cities in Central Italy (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1997).

Henderson, John. “The Black Death in Florence” in Death in Towns, ed. S. Bennett (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1992).

Herlihy, David. The Black Death and the Transformation of the West (Cambrdige: Harvard University Press, 1997).

Kelly, John. The Great Mortality (New York: HarperCollins, 2005).

The Avignon Papacy/The Great Schism

Mullins, Edwin. The Popes of Avignon: A Century in Exile (New York: Blueridge, 2008).

Smith, John Holland. The Great Schism 1378: The Disintegration of the Papacy (New York: Weybright And Talley, 1970).

Weiss, Stefan. “Luxury and Extravagance at the Papal Court in Avignon and the Outbreak of the Great Western Schism”, trans. Catherine Masemann in A Companion to the Great Schism, eds. Joelle Rollo-Koster and Thomas M. Izbicki (Leiden: Brill, 2009).

The Ciompi Revolt

Brucker, Gene A. “The Ciompi Revolution” in Florentine Studies: Politics and Society in Renaissance Florence, ed. Nicolai Rubenstein (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1968).

Kitchel, Alex. “The Ciompi Revolt of 1378: Socio-Political Constraints and the Economic Demands of Workers in Renaissance Florence” Hanover Historical Review 13 (2018): 1-23.

Texler, R.C. “Follow the Flag: The Ciompi Revolt Seen From The Streets” Bibliotheque d’Humanisme et Renaissance 46 (1984): 357-392.

The Early Medici

Becker, Marvin B. “The Republican City State in Florence: An Inquiry into Its Origins and Survival” Speculum (1960): 39-50.

______________.  Florentine Politics and Society: 1343-1378 (Princeton University Press, 2016).

Bertelli, Sergio. “Constitutional Reforms in Renaissance Florence”, Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies (1973): 139-164.

Dami, B. Giovanni Bicci de’ Medici (Florence, 1899).

Field, Arthur. The Intellectual Struggle for Florence: Humanists and the Beginnings of the Medici Regime, 1420-1440 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).

Gombrich, E.H. “The Early Medici as Patrons of Art” in Italian Renaissance Studies, ed. E.F. Jacob (London, 1960).

Jurdjevic, M. “Civic Humanism and the Rise of the Medici” Renaissance Quarterly, 52.4 (1999): 994-1020.

Kent, Dale The Rise of the Medici (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).

Litchfield, I.R. Burr “Office-holding in Florence After the Republic” in Renaissance: Studies in Honor of Hans Baron, ed. Anthony Molho and John A. Tedeschi (Dekalb, Illinois, 1971).

Molho, Anthony. “The Florentine oligarchy and the balie of the late trecento” Speculum (1968).

____________. “Politics and the ruling class in Early Renaissance Florence”, Nuovaa Rivista Storica (1968): 401-420.

Pampaloni, G. “Fermenti di riforme democratiche nella Firenze medicea del quattrocentro” in Archivio Storico Italiano (1961): 11-61 and 241-281.

Rubenstein, Nicolai. The Government of Florence Under the Medici (Oxford, 1966).

_______________. “Florentine Constitutionalism and Medici Ascendancy in the Fifteenth Century”, Florentine Studies: Politics and Society in Renaissance Florence, ed. Nicolai Rubenstein (London: Fabier, 1968).

The Renaissance

Anderson, Christy. Renaissance Architecture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).

Bartlett, Kenneth R. and Bartlett, Gillian C. The Renaissance in Italy: A History (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 2019).

Brown, Alison. The Renaissance (London: Longman, 1988).

Brown, Howard M. and Stein, Louise K. Music in the Renaissance, 2nd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999).

Brumble, H. David. “Let Us Make Gods in Our Image: Greek Myth in Medieval and Renaissance Literature” in Greek Mythology, ed. Roger D. Woodard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

Burckhardt, Jacob. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, trans. S.G.C. Middlemore (New York: Modern Library, 1954 [1878]).

Burke, Peter. The Renaissance (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International, 1987).

Clark, Kenneth. The Nude: A Study of Ideal Art (New York: Pelican Books, 1956).

Goodwin, Joscelyn. The Pagan Dream of the Renaissance (London: Thames and Hudson, 2002).

Hale, J.R. The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance (New York: Atheneum, 1994).

The Impact of Humanism on Western Europe, eds. Anthony Goodman and Angus McKay (New York: Longman, 1990).

Hamilton, Alastair. “Humanists and the Bible” in The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism, ed. Jill Kraye (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Johnson, Geraldine A. Renaissance Art: A Brief Insight (New York: Sterling, 2005).

Kelley, Donald R. Renaissance Humanism (Boston: Twayne Publishing, 1991).

Kelly, Joan. “Did Women Have a Renaissance?” in Becoming Visible: Women in European History, eds. Ridete Bridenthall, Claudia Koontz, and Susan Stuard (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977): 175-201.

King, Ross. Brunelleschi’s Dome: How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented Architecture (New York: Walker & Company, 2000).

Levi, Anthony. Renaissance and Reformation: The Intellectual Genesis (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002).

Mann, Nicholas. “The Origins of Humanism” in The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism, ed. Jill Kraye (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Seznec, Jean. The Survival of the Pagan Gods: The Mythological Tradition and Its Place in Renaissance Humanism and Art, trans. Barbara F. Sessions (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981).

Talvacchia, Bette. Taking Positions: On the Erotic in Renaissance Culture (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999).

Thompson, Brad S. Humanists & Reformers: A History of the Renaissance and Reformation (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1997).

Ullman, Walter. Medieval Foundations of Renaissance Humanism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977).

Cosimo de’ Medici

Gutkind, K. Cosimo de’ Medici: Pater Patriae, 1389-1464 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1938).

Jenkins, A.D. Fraser “Cosimo de’ Medici’s Patronage of Architecture and the Theory of Magnificence” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes (1970): 162-170.

Kent, Dale. Cosimo de’ Medici and the Florentine Renaissance (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000).

Molho, Anthony. “Cosimo de’ Medici: Pater Patriae or Padrino?” Standford Italian Review (1979): 5–33.

Lorenzo The Magnificent

Acton, Harold. The Pazzi Conspiracy: The Plot against the Medici (London: Thames and Hudson, 1979).

Armstrong, Antonio Edward. Lorenzo de’ Medici and Florence in the Fifteenth Century (New York: Putnam, 1896).

Elam, Caroline. “Lorenzo de’ Medici and the Urban Development of Renaissance Florence.” Art History 1 (1978): 43-66.

Marks, Louis F. “The Financial Oligarchy in Florence Under Lorenzo” in Italian Renaissance Studies, ed. E.F. Jacob (New York: Faber, 1966).

Martines, Lauro. April Blood: Florence and the Plot Against The Medici (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Medici, Lorenzo de’. The Complete Literary Works of Lorenzo de’ Medici, ed. Guido A. Guarino (New York: Italica Press, 2016).

Unger, Miles J. Magnifico: The Brilliant Life and Violent Times of Lorenzo De’ Medici (New York: Simon & Schustser, 2009).

Piero de’ Medici and the Start of the Italian Wars

Brown, Alison. Piero di Lorenzo de’ Medici and the Crisis of Renaissance Italy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020).

The French Descent into Renaissance Italy, 1494-95: Antecedents and Effects, ed. David Abulafia (New York: Taylor & Francis, 1995).

Predonzani, Massimo and Alberici, Vincenzo. The Italian Wars, vol. 1, trans. Rachele Tiso (Warwick: Hellon & Company, 2019).

Shaw, Christine and Mallett, Michael. The Italian Wars, 1494-1559: War, State, and Society in Early Modern Europe, 2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 2018).


Martines, Lauro. Fire in the City: Savonarola and the Struggle for the Soul of Renaissance Florence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

Savonarola, Girolamo. Selected Writings, ed. and trans. Anne Borelli, Donald Beebe, and Maria Pastore Passaro (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008).

Strathern, Paul. Death in Florence: The Medici, Savonarola, and the Battle for the Soul of a Renaissance City (New York: Pegasus Books, 2015).

Weinstein, Donald. Savonarola: The Rise and Fall of a Renaissance Prophet (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011).

The bibliographies are not set in stone and will keep growing as our story goes on.